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History of wireless power transmission (CHAPTER I)


The function of the cable as a transmission medium can already be seen in the use of telegram as a telecommunications medium. In telegrams, messages are encoded into Morse code and then translated into electrical signals which are then sent through a wire (Morse, 1844). The working principle of the telegram then became the basis for the development of information delivery technology using cable media. Along with the development of technology, the delivery of information in the end can also be done through non-cable media, which is called Wireless (Wireless). Wireless communication is carried out by utilizing electromagnetic waves as a medium for sending information. Through an antenna, electromagnetic waves are emitted and captured to be processed into useful information.

Lately, the trend of sending information wirelessly is growing much more rapidly than in previous years. The question is now if the technology of sending information wirelessly can develop so rapidly, what about the transmission of electrical energy wirelessly?

Early in the 19th century, scientists and researchers such as Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) and Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894) as pioneers in the world of wireless transmission already knew that it was possible to transmit electrical power without going through wires. Nikola Tesla explored and continues to study a wireless power delivery system through his discoveries of radio waves, microwaves, and Tesla coils. In the end, Nikola Tesla made the Wardenclyffe tower (Figure 1.1) with the aim of being a generator that could transmit electrical power and information throughout the world. However, because the sponsor JP Morgan (Rolfe, 2009) suddenly stopped the flow of funds, and Nikola Tesla did not get another sponsor, the Wardenclyffe tower was eventually destroyed before it could operate.

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Figure 1.1 Wardencyffe tower

As another example, the principle of induction in a transformer, can transmit electrical power from one coil without touching the other coil, even though the distance is still very close. In addition to transformers, the principle of electromagnetic radiation in radio waves can also transmit electrical energy wirelessly, but because of their low efficiency, these radio waves only play an important role in the telecommunications world in transmitting information and cannot be used to transmit large amounts of electrical power (replacing the cable). Scientists have also tried to concentrate electromagnetic waves like lasers (doesn't spread like electromagnetic waves in radio waves), but this is also not practical and can even damage and harm humankind. Finally found a way to be able to transmit electrical energy wirelessly, namely by using the principle of magnetic resonance, where energy is transferred at the same frequency to the sender and receiver, so that it will not affect objects around which have different frequencies.

Based on the above background, the author is interested in making a safe (electrically insulated) electrical power transfer device because it is non-radiative.

Formulation of the problem

The problem raised in this final project is how to design a device for wireless power transfer and how to determine the characteristics of the tool that has been successfully made.

Scope of problem

To avoid wrong perceptions and widen the discussion, the researchers limit the problems of this final project in several ways, namely:

  1. The design of this system is based on the principle of magnetic induction-resonance, both on the sending and receiving sides.
  2. The transferred power will be used to power an LED load.
  3. Maximum power transfer distance is 20 cm.

Research purposes

The objectives of this final project are:

  1. Produce a device that can send electrical power wirelessly.
  2. As a form of participation to support research on WPT (Wireless
  3. Power Transfer) which is currently being carried out in many universities both at home and abroad.

Benefits of research

Some of the expected benefits of this Final Project are:

  1. Develop a method of wireless power transfer
  2. Applying basic theories about Magnets and electromagnetic field phenomena acquired in lectures.

Writing system

The systematics of writing this final report are as follows:

Chapter I Introduction

Contains an explanation of the background, problem formulation, objectives, problem boundaries, methodology, and writing systematics used to compile the final project report.

CHAPTER II Theoretical Foundation

Contains the theoretical basis used in conducting the analysis, design, and implementation of the final project carried out in subsequent chapters.

CHAPTER III Research Methods

Contains the implementation, tools, materials, the course of planning and the expected results.

CHAPTER IV Results and Discussion

Contains the analysis and discussion of research results that have been carried out.

CHAPTER V Conclusions and suggestions

Contains conclusions and suggestions based on the results of the discussion obtained.